This is a medical presentation that shows some bleeding coming from the varices of the
esophagus. Varices are dilated veins in the distal esophagus or proximal stomach caused by elevated pressure in the portal venous system, typically from cirrhosis. They may bleed massively
but cause no other symptoms. Diagnosis is by upper endoscopy. Treatment is primarily
with endoscopic banding and IV octreotide. Sometimes a transjugular intrahepatic
portosystemic shunting procedure is needed.
Thirty percent of patients with compensated cirrhosis and 60-70% of patients with
decompensated cirrhosis have gastroesophageal varices at presentation.
The risk of bleeding from esophageal varices is 30% in the first year after identification.
Bleeding from esophageal varices accounts for approximately 10% of episodes of upper