Cytomegalovirus Esophagitis
Esophageal Congenital Rings

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Esophageal Congenital Rings

This is the case of a 17 year-old female, who suffers from dysphagia since childhood, endoscopy detected these congenital rings.

 

 

Esophageal Congenital Rings

All endoscopic images shown in this Atlas contain
video clips.

Esophageal Congenital Rings

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Endoscopy of Esophageal Congenital Rings

Multiple esophageal rings are a very unusual cause of dysphagia.

Esophageal Congenital Rings

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Image and video clip of Esophageal Congenital Rings

Esophageal Congenital Rings

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Rx of of Esophageal Congenital Rings

 

Esophageal Congenital Rings

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Rx of of Esophageal Congenital Rings

Esophageal leiomyoma

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Esophageal leiomyoma

Benign tumors of the esophagus are rare lesions that constitute less than 1% of esophageal neoplasms. Nearly two thirds of benign esophageal tumors are leiomyomas; the others mostly are polyps and cysts. Thus, leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors of the esophagus.

Although rare elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract, leiomyomas (LMs) are the most common esophageal mesenchymal neoplasms. In contrast, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) predominate in the stomach and intestines but rarely documented in the esophagus.

The majority of leiomyomas have been discovered incidentally during evaluation for dysphagia or during autopsy. Bleeding rarely occurs in cases of benign disease but typically is observed with leiomyosarcoma, the malignant counterpart of this tumor. The potential for malignant degeneration of leiomyomas is extremely small. In the distal esophagus, leiomyomas may reach large proportions and may encroach on the cardia of the stomach.



Esophageal leiomyoma

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Esophageal leiomyomas comprise less than 0.6% of all esophageal neoplasms, both in the United States and worldwide.

Esophageal leiomyomas rarely cause symptoms when they

Esophageal leiomyomas rarely cause symptoms when they are smaller than 5 cm in diameter. Large tumors can cause dysphagia, vague retrosternal discomfort, chest pain, esophageal obstruction, and regurgitation. Rarely, they can cause gastrointestinal bleeding, with erosion through the mucosa.

While open surgical technique is the traditional mainstay of therapy for leiomyomas, combined esophagoscopy and video-assisted resection (thoracoscopy) or laparoscopic transhiatal resection are being increasingly performed.
Endoscopic removal of these tumors has been attempted. However, this technique cannot be considered standard of care.



Esophageal leiomyoma

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Actin to smooth muscle.

 

 

 



Esophageal leiomyoma

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Actin to smooth muscle.

Histologically, the tumors are comprised of bundles of interlacing smooth muscle cells, well-demarcated by adjacent tissue or by a definitive connective tissue capsule. They are composed of fascicles of spindle cells that tend to intersect with each other at varying angles. The tumor cells have blunt-ended elongated nuclei and show minimal atypia with few mitotic figures.


Gastrointestinal stromal tumors

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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the esophagus are rare, comprising only about 1% of reported GISTs

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract, but occur rarely in the esophagus.

A 45 year-old male, physician, previously asintomatic, a giant GIST was found at the level of the middle third.

Hypomotility of the distal esophagus, hiatal hernias and GERD are common findings. Therefore, evaluation for GERD should be considered before and after surgery for
esophageal GIST.

 

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors

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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are a subset of GI mesenchymal tumors of varying differentiation. Previously, these tumors were classified as GI leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas, leiomyoblastomas, or schwannomas, on the basis of histologic findings and the fact that these tumors apparently originate in the muscularis propria layer of the intestinal wall. With the advent of immunohistochemical staining techniques and ultrastructural evaluation, GISTs now are recognized as a distinct group of mesenchymal tumors. In the present classification, GISTs account for approximately 80% of GI mesenchymal tumors.

Use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has revolutionized therapy for GISTs but complete resection remains the treatment of choice. Esophageal GISTs require special consideration regarding perioperative treatment, evaluation, and conduct of operation.




Gastrointestinal stromal tumors

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Esophageal GISTs present unique challenges. First, the
tumor must be recognized correctly as a GIST. Due to the
similar clinical,endoscopic, and radiographic appearance as
the far more common esophageal leiomyoma, a GIST may
not be identified as such untilafter resection. Because
GISTs are fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)avid, FDG-positron
emission tomography (PET) scanning may beused to
differentiate them from leiomyoma.

 

 

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors

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Patient have been suffered of GERD since many years.
The endoscopic image as well as the video clip displays
a reflux esophagitis with Barret esophagus.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors

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Hypomotility of the distal esophagus, hiatal hernias and
GERD are common findings in patient with leiomyomas.
Therefore, evaluation for GERD should be considered
before and after surgery for esophageal leiomyoma.

Tracheal Bifurcation.

Tracheal Bifurcation.

The endoscope is occasionally passed inadvertently into the trachea rather than the esophagus, for example, in patients who have difficulty initiating the act of swallowing. Tracheal rings will be evident, as will the bifurcation into right and left mainstream bronchi.

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Traqueo Esophageal Fistula

Small Traqueo-Esophageal Fistula.

A 90 year- old male with old pulmonar tuberculosis sequels. We found the image displays here and some biopsies where taken at the time of the endoscopy we found this image in the superior third of the esophagus, We did not have a diagnosis and therefore proceed to biopsy this lesion. Esophagogram was obtained, showing small fistula between up third of esophagus and trachea.

 

lye ingestion

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Status after 36 year of lye ingestion


Circular Scars are observed in the middle third of the Esophagus.

This 40 year-old female, at the age of 4, suffers an accident ingesting lye, for more than two years underwent continuous sessions of dilation of the esophagus.




lye ingestion

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Status after 36 year of lye ingestion

In the image as well as the video clip a scar of gastrostomy is observed after 36 year .

Foreign body retrieval.

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Polypectomy snare -assisted removal of a foreign body impacted in the esophagus.

A 76 year-old man with meat and rice’s residues werefound at the cardias, which obstruct passage due a mild stenosis of the cardias, as a consequence of reflux esophagitis.

 

 

 



Foreign body retrieval.

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Foreign body retrieval.

The meat and rice’s are retrieval with the polypectomy snare.

Heterotopic gastric mucosa inlet patch

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Heterotopic gastric mucosa “inlet patch”

This a 52 year-old male, in a routine endoscopy, this image of a gastric mucosa heterotopia in cervical esophagus and image of a pseudo diverticulum was found, patient was asymptomatic.

Heterotopic gastric mucosa of the proximal esophagus (HGMPE), also referred to as “inlet patch” or “cervical inlet patch”, is a salmon colored patch that is usually located just distal to the upper esophageal sphincter. HGMPE is uncommon with endoscopic studies reporting a prevalence ranging from less than one percent to 18%. Most HGMPE are asymptomatic and are detected incidentally during endoscopy for evaluations of other gastrointestinal complaints. Most consider HGMPE as clinically irrelevant entity. The clinical significance of HGMPE is mainly acid related or neoplastic transformation. The reported prevalence of laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms varies from less than 20% to as high as 73.1%. However, most of these symptoms are mild. Clinically significant acid related complications such as bleeding, ulcerations, structure and fistulization have been reported. Although rare, dysplastic changes and malignancies in association with HGMPE have also been reported. Associations with Barrett’s esophagus have also been reported but the findings so far have been conflicting.

Heterotopic gastric mucosa inlet patch

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The clinical manifestations of HGMPE can be broadly divided into non-neoplastic and neoplastic. The majority of patients found to have HGMPE are asymptomatic and the HGMPE are detected incidentally during evaluation for other gastrointestinal complaints. These patients are categorized to have type I HGMPE. The non-neoplastic manifestations (type II and III) such as LPR symptoms and strictures and bleeding are probably related to the acid produced by the patch. The least common manifestations are the histological or neoplastic changes (type IV and V). With the exception of malignancy in the pediatric population, all these have been reported both in the adult and pediatric population. Acid related symptoms are often seen in younger patients whereas neoplastic manifestations have been reported mainly in the elderly population.

Ectopic Sebaceous Glands in the Esophagus

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Ectopic Sebaceous Glands in the Esophagus

A 37-year-old female, who underwent endoscopy to assess gastroesophageal reflux showed numerous yellow nodular lesions in the esophagus.

Ectopic sebaceous glands occur rarely in the esophagus

On upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, multiple wart-like grayish-yellow projections were detected and several of them were biopsied. Microscopically, they proved to be sebaceous glands in the esophagus.

Sebaceous glands are derived from the ectoderm. Ectopic sebaceous glands have been reported in various sites such as lips and mouth (in Fordyce's disease) eyes, orbits, palms and soles, salivary glands, tongue and larynx. In esophagus, which is an endodermally derived organ, the presence of ectopic sebaceous glands is rare. This condition was described in only 20 living individuals in previous studies.

 


Ectopic Sebaceous Glands in the Esophagus

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Ectopic Sebaceous Glands in the Esophagus

On upper GI video endoscopy, multiple 20) grayish-yellow nodular projections of 2–4 mm diameter were noticed in the middle and lower esophagus. Endoscopy also revealed features of mild chronic gastritis. Endoscopic diagnosis of papillomata was suggested; punch biopsy from two of the yellowish projections was performed and sent for histopathological examination.

Sebaceous glands in esophagus are very rare and have been reported mostly in autopsy studies. Only a few cases have been reported in living persons and have been considered of no clinical significance. Rarely have been these lesions diagnosed by endoscopy and biopsy.

 

Ectopic Sebaceous Glands in the Esophagus

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Ectopic Sebaceous Glands in the Esophagus

Ectopic sebaceous glands in esophagus are a very rare occurrence. It probably represents a metaplastic change in the esophageal submucosal glands.

Sebaceous glands in the esophagus are rare and are of particular interest because of their as yet unknown origin.

Sebaceous glands generally arise in close association with hair follicles to form the pilosebaceous apparatus, but they are also found independently. Sebaceous glands are unevenly distributed over the body surface, being most numerous on the face and scalp, less numerous over the thorax and abdomen, and sparest on the extremities.

Ectopic sebaceous glands (ESGs) are benign esophageal lesions that have a lower detection rate than malignant lesions because most patients are asymptomatic. However, this rate can be increased by the widespread use of endoscopes and an increasing awareness of the disease. Through esophagogastroduodenoscopy, ESGs often appear in the middle and lower esophagus in numbers ranging from 1 to more than 100 yellowish plaques measuring 1–2 mm in diameter. Histopathological examination of ESGs would reveal small lobular cluster glands in the lamina propria. Diagnosis is usually confirmed through an endoscopic biopsy. ESGs are best distinguished from other yellowish lesions such as xanthoma via endoscopy. These lesions tend to appear singly scattered, whereas xanthomas tend to be clustered. 

 

Ectopic Sebaceous Glands in the Esophagus

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Ectopic Sebaceous Glands in the Esophagus

Microphotograph showing stratified squamous epithelium and sebaceous glands in lobules. 

View of sebaceous gland consisting of foamy lipid filled cells and associated cuboidal/squamoid epithelium.

 

Ectopic Sebaceous Glands in the Esophagus

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Ectopic Sebaceous Glands in the Esophagus

Sebaceous glands arise in close association with hair follicles to form the pilosebaceous apparatus . Sebaceous glands are only found in lips and oral cavity. Ectopic sebaceous glands have been reported in a variety of sites including genitals, eyes, orbits, nipples, palms, soles and parotid glands. Sebaceous glands in esophagus are interesting because of their doubtful embryonic origin. Several hypothesis have been postulated to explain sebaceous glands in various sites including developments defect and metaplasia. The absence of sebaceous glands in esophagus of children. And their presence in adults could be indicative of metaplastic process.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Ectopic Sebaceous Glands in the Esophagus

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Ectopic Sebaceous Glands in the Esophagus

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Ectopic Sebaceous Glands in the Esophagus

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Ectopic Sebaceous Glands in the Esophagus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Esofagitis Infecciosa por Citomegalovirus

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Tongue and Esophageal Burning paraquat ingestion

A 32-year-old female, who attempted suicide ingested an unquantified amount of this herbicide, Was hospitalized in her city, underwent a gastric lavage with a naso-gastric tube, 10 days after was referred to our unit to perform an endoscopy, The appearance of the patient was in good condition general.

In fatal cases of paraquat poisoning, histopathological findings range from pulmonary congestion, edema, and hemorrhage to extensive pulmonary fibrosis.

 Paraquat toxicity produces local as well as systemic effects

Paraquat ingestion results in an inflammation of the tongue, oral mucosa and throat, corrosive injury to the gastrointestinal tract, renal tubular necrosis, hepatic necrosis, and pulmonary fibrosis.

The patient complains of burning and ulceration of the throat, tongue, and esophagus. The pulmonary manifestations of paraquat poisoning begin with diffuse consolidation, which evolves several days later into cystic lesions followed by focal fibrotic lesions with very high mortality. Ingestion of large amounts is considered to be uniformly fatal from multiorgan failure and cardiogenic shock. Identification of paraquat in urine has not only been used to confirm the diagnosis, but also investigated for the prognostication. It has been found that plasma concentration of >1.6 pg/ml 12 h after ingestion is universally fatal.

 


Corrosive injury of esophagus after paraquat

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There are small burning of the the oropharynx

 

 

Corrosive injury of esophagus after paraquat

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Corrosive injury of esophagus after paraquat

Paraquat is a mild caustic agent that produce esophageal injuries of grades 1, 2a, and 2b only. 

  • Ingestion of small to medium amounts of paraquat may lead to development of the following adverse health effects within several days to several weeks:
    • Heart failure
    • Kidney failure
    • Liver failure
    • Lung scarring
  • In general, ingestion of large amounts of paraquat leads to the following signs/symptoms within a few hours to a few days:
    • Acute Kidney failure
    • Confusion
    • Coma
    • Fast heart rate
    • Injury to the heart
    • Liver failure
    • Lung scarring (evolves more quickly than when small to medium amounts have been ingested)
    • Muscle weakness
    • Pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs)
    • Respiratory (breathing) failure, possibly leading to death
    • Seizures

 

 

corrosive injury esophagus paraquat

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Corrosive injury of esophagus after paraquat

Data on the spectrum of corrosive injury to the esophagus after paraquat or glyphosate-surfactant ingestion are sparse in the literature and confined to case studies and brief reports.

 

 

Endoscopic Retching

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Retching

Vomiting reflexes during upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy causes suffering in patients, excessive retching can cause Mallory-Weiss tears complicating endoscopy
occur especially in elderly, female patients with hiatal
hernias.

 

 

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